American John Gorrie was the first to freeze water into blocks of ice in 1844 in an effort to build a refrigerator for sickrooms; in 1929, the first ice cube machine was invented. These innovations and those that followed have enabled consumers to enjoy refreshingly cool beverages for nearly a century, and innovations in standards have assured that consumers can chill their favorite drinks safely.
A recently released American National Standard (ANS) from Underwriters Laboratories, UL 563-2009, Standard for Safety for Ice Makers, covers ice makers that automatically manufacture and harvest ice in cube, flake, or other readily usable form, with or without provision for storage or means of dispensing. The scope of UL 563-2009 encompasses automatic ice makers designed for connection to alternating-current circuits rated not more than 600 volts; unitary and remote ice makers; and self-contained ice makers employing hermetic refrigerant motor compressors and air or water cooled condensers. The standard does not apply to tray ice makers, ice vending machines, or ice makers and ice maker kits used in household refrigerators and freezers.
UL 563-2009 is a revised ANS that provides useful clarifications to the 2006 edition, including requirements for secondary circuits and nonmetallic materials; additions of marking requirements, a strain relief test, and dealing with higher leakage current to ground; revisions to enclosure requirements, internal wiring requirements, and conditions for input and temperature pressure tests; and additions and revisions to the glossary, among other miscellaneous clarification revisions.
An ANSI audited designator and organizational member, UL is an independent product safety certification organization that tests products and writes standards to promote safe living and working environments for more than 19,000 types of products, components, materials, and systems each year that are physically and environmentally safe.
Steam and Hot Water Boilers
Both high- and low-pressure boilers heat water or steam in an enclosed vessel, which then exits the boiler for various processes or heating applications. A hot water system boiler uses a pump to circulate the hot water, while the steam boiler uses its own pressure to circulate the steam throughout the system. Boilers can be fueled by various sources including electricity, natural gas, or oil.
ANSI Z21.13-2010/CSA 4.9-2010, Gas-Fired Low Pressure Steam and Hot Water Boilers, a recently published standard from ANSI organizational member and accredited standards developer CSA America, provides guidelines for safe operation, substantial and durable construction, and acceptable performance of gas-fired low-pressure steam and hot water boilers. This standard applies to newly produced gas-fired low-pressure steam and hot water boilers with gas inlet pressure ratings not exceeding 1/2 psi (3.5 kPa) and having input ratings of less than 12,500,000 Btu/hr (3,663,389 W), constructed entirely of new unused parts and materials, for operation at or below the specified pressures and temperatures for use with natural gas, manufactured gas, mixed gas, liquefied petroleum (LP) gases, and LP gas-air mixtures.
CSA America is a non-profit organization dedicated to the creation and promulgation of standards for gas appliances and accessories and alternative energy products. CSA standards serve businesses, trade associations, governments, and industries in the U.S. and the global marketplace in order to enhance public safety, advance the quality of life, help preserve the environment, and facilitate trade.