AMSC Gaps Portal

Nondestructive Evaluation Section


An industry driven standard needs to be developed, with input from experts in metallurgy, NDE, and additive manufacturing fabrication, to identify flaws or flaw concentrations with the potential to jeopardize an AM object’s intended use. Many flaws have been identified but more effort is needed to agree on flaws terminology, providing appropriate names and descriptions.

R&D Needed: No

Recommendation: Develop standardized terminology to identify and describe flaws, and typical locations in a build.

Priority: High

Organization: ASTM E07, ASTM F42/ISO TC 261, SAE AMS K, ASME BPVC, AWS D20, NIST

Status of Progress: Green

Update: As noted in the text.

No published standards exist for the design or manufacture of artifacts or phantoms applicable to calibrating NDE equipment or demonstrating detection of naturally occurring flaws (lack of fusion, porosity, etc.), or intentionally added features (watermarks, embedded geometrical features, etc.). Current standards under development, ISO/ASTM CD 52905 JG59 and ASTM WK47031, are partially addressing this with seeded defects and demonstration of NDT detectability. This standard should identify the naturally occurring flaws and intentional features. This standard should also include recommendations regarding the use of existing subtractive machined calibration standards or AM representative artifacts or phantoms.

R&D Needed: No. This may not need R&D but it will require obtaining the knowledge necessary to state requirements and present supporting evidence, much like a round robin activity.

Recommendation: Complete work on JG59, JG60 and ASTM WK47031.

Priority: Medium

Organization: ASTM F42/ISO TC 261

Status of Progress: Green

Update: As noted in the text.

There is a need for an industry-driven standard led by nondestructive testing experts and supported by the additive manufacturing community to assess current inspection practices and provide an introduction to nondestructive testing and inspection requirements.

R&D Needed: Yes. Round robin testing is underway on ASTM WK47031 and ISO/ASTM CD 52905. A future need will be a precision and bias statement to generate standard test methods to accept/reject AM parts and in procurement of AM parts.

Recommendation: Complete work on ASTM WK47031, New Guide for Nondestructive Testing of Additive Manufactured Metal Parts Used in Aerospace Applications

and ISO/ASTM CD 52905, Additive Manufacturing — Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation — Standard Guideline for Defect Detection in Metallic Parts, proceeding as ISO/TC 261/JG 59.

Priority: High

Organization: ASTM E07, ASTM F42/ISO TC 261, ASME, NIST

Status of Progress: Green

Update: ASTM WK47031 and ISO/TC 261/JG 59 are in development. ASME is also looking at NDE vis a vis its boiler and pressure vessel code.

The utility of existing and draft CT standards are needed for the dimensional measurement of AM internal features.

R&D Needed: Yes.

Recommendation: ASTM E07 should address the applicability of current and draft CT standards (E1570, E1695, WK61161, and WK61974) for measurement of internal features in additively manufactured parts, especially parts with complex geometry, internal features, and/or embedded features. Current CT metrology state-of-the-art needs to be tailored to evolving AM part inspection requirements. See also Gap D26, Measurement of AM Features/Verifying the designs of features such as lattices, etc.

Priority: Medium

Organization: ASTM

Status of Progress: Green

Update: As noted in the text.

Since multiple sources and results are combined in data fusion, there is a possible issue of a non-linear data combination that can produce results that can be influenced by the user. Additionally, data fusion may employ statistical techniques that can also introduce some ambiguity in the results. While likely more accurate than non-data fusion techniques, introduction of multiple variables can be problematic. Data fusion techniques also require a certain level of expertise by the user and therefore there might be a need for user certification.

R&D Needed: No

Recommendation: The following are needed to address the gap:

  • Specific industry standards for data fusion in AM NDT techniques
  • Expert education, training, and certification for AM data fusion in NDT

Priority: Medium

Organization: ASTM

Status of Progress: Unknown

Update: None provided

No published or in development standards or specifications have been identified for NDE of polymers and other non-metallic materials.

R&D Needed: Yes. Research who uses AM Fused Filaments or pellets with PAI/Torlon and/or carbon fiber reinforced filaments with a high degree of fiber loading to see what they are anticipating for testing requirements for NDE for strength or structural qualities.

Recommendation: There is a need for an industry-driven standard led by nondestructive testing experts and supported by the additive manufacturing community to assess current inspection practices and provide an introduction to nondestructive testing and inspection requirements for structural or load bearing polymers and other non-metallic materials. Use ASTM E2533-17e1 as a guideline when applicable.

Priority: Low

Organization: ASTM F42/ISO TC 261, ASTM E07, ASTM D20

Status of Progress: New

Update:

There are no published or in development NDE standards for methods used to verify anti-counterfeiting methods.

R&D Needed: Not at this time. Future R&D may be needed if an anti-counterfeiting method is developed which cannot be verified by existing NDE methods or standards.

Recommendation: Develop NDE methods and standards for anti-counterfeiting that are not addressed by existing methods or standards.

Priority: Low

Organization: ASTM F42/ISO TC 261, ASTM E07, SAE AMS-AM

Status of Progress: New

Update:

There is a need for an industry standard that establishes NDE acceptance classes for fracture critical AM parts.

R&D Needed: Yes. Well-characterized samples should be fabricated with controlled loadings of technologically important AM defects in order to conduct effect-of-defect studies.

Recommendation: Develop an industry standard that establishes different degrees of flaw concentrations for quality acceptance. Fabricate effect-of-defect samples with the appropriate level of fidelity, i.e., sufficient similarity between the defect state in sacrificial samples (for example, ASTM E8 compliant dogbones) with natural flaws in actual production parts.

Priority: Medium

Organization: ASTM F42 / ISO TC 261 JG 59, ASTM E07, ASTM E08 on Fracture and Fatigue

Status of Progress: New

Update: