ANSI - American National Standards Institute

Career Opportunities

As a service to our members and constituents in the U.S. standards and conformity assessment community, ANSI provides an online network connecting the most progressive companies with the most qualified career-minded individuals.

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that administers and coordinates the U.S. voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system. Positions currently available with ANSI and the ANSI-ASQ (American Society for Quality) National Accreditation Board ACLASS and ANAB programs include:

ANSI Staff Positions

ANSI Contractual Opportunities

Other Employment Opportunities

Job Title: Standards Manager
Company Name: Acoustical Society of America
City: Melville, NY
Type: Full time
Posted: 08/06/18

Summary Description:

Manages the operational activities related to Acoustical Society of America (ASA) Standards Office. Participates with the members of ASA Committee on Standards (ASACOS) in the administration, policy-making, and development of ASA standards. Keeps abreast of activities in related standards development organizations, and promotes use of best practices within ASA.

Interacts with Working Group members and Chairs, Individual Experts, Standards Committee Chairs, Organizational Members of the ANSI-Accredited Standards Committees, and ANSI-Accredited Technical Advisory Groups to ISO and IEC committees, as well as national and international liaisons regarding operational, contractual, financial, and public relations activities related to consensus standards development. This includes written and Email correspondence, telephone conferences, and face-to-face meetings at locations throughout the world. Promotes the quality and value associated with ASA Standards. Budgets costs and resources and assists the Standards Director and Executive Director to establish plans to improve the standards development process.

Communicates regularly with the Standards Director and Executive Director on regular operational activities, strategic direction, long-term goals, finance, and policy issues.

Essential Job Functions

  • Manage Standards staff of 2 persons and contractors. Perform routine management duties in consultation with the Executive Director such as training, performance management and counseling, policy implementation, employee relations, hiring, and new employee orientation, etc.
  • Manage ISO/IEC Standards Secretariat(s), including supervision of staff, finance and budget, travel to and facilitate international meetings.
  • Oversee administration of the Technical Advisory Groups (TAGs), with liaison to counterparts in national and international standards organizations.
  • Oversees the ANSI accredited process for standards development and ensures proper processes are in place to maintain accreditation and pass audits. Travel to ANSI meetings.
  • Interact with standards organizational members as needed, including the administration of fees, in order to conduct the business of ASA Standards using a diplomatic, professional, and service-oriented approach.
  • Preparation and timely circulation of meeting documents, draft minutes, etc.
  • Oversee administration of Committees including submission of ANSI paperwork, handling of ballots, editing, proofreading and publication of Standards.
  • Attend the semiannual ASA meetings and facilitate the ASACOS and Standards Committee meetings held there.
  • Initiation, implementation, and fulfillment of government or other contracts received by the ASA concerning standards.
  • Facilitate the appeals process and represent ASA, as required. Prepare official responses to comments.
  • Identify, train and cultivate Committee, TAG, and Working Group Chairs.
  • Publicity, development of press materials, and public relations activities related to the promotion and marketing of Standards.
  • Respond in a timely manner to all to enquiries from the national and international standards committees and subcommittees comprising over 700 working group volunteers.
  • Responsible for expense tracking and input to the Standards budget.

Other Responsibilities

  • Perform tasks necessary to complete performance objectives.
  • Stakeholder outreach.
  • Assist team members as needed.

Knowledge, Skills, Experience, and Education Required

  • Bachelor’s degree or higher and 10 years work experience.
  • 5 or more years of experience in standards developing organizations, and/or professional societies.
  • Experience with legal compliance and detailed adherence to all rules.
  • Highly service-oriented with the ability to follow up and see tasks through to completion.
  • Previous management, budgeting and contracts experience.
  • Demonstrated skill in full life cycle project management.
  • Ability to manage and develop volunteers in a structured, rule-based environment
  • Ability to collaborate with multiple teams in different time zones.
  • Ability to work independently to achieve goals established in a consensus environment.
  • Excellent analytical skills.
  • Ability to persuade and influence stakeholders.
  • Ability to create and maintain accurate records for audit purposes.
  • Process and detail oriented. Ability to multi-task and shift priorities as needed.
  • Advanced MS Office skills in Outlook, Word, Excel, PowerPoint.
  • Exceptional written and verbal communication skills, including editing.
  • International travel and work experience or foreign language skills desirable.

This position is located in the ASA office in Melville, NY, but is managed remotely in a matrix structure. It also requires approximately 40 days of domestic and international travel.

How to Apply

If you feel you have the qualifications and would like to apply for this position, please forward your cover letter and resume to the Human Resources Division of the American Institute of Physics Publishing at aiphrny@aip.org


Job Title: Client Manager
Company Name: IOAS
City: Dickinson, ND
Type: Full time
Posted: 06/29/18

Description:

IOAS is seeking two Client Managers to join its team

The IOAS is a mission driven non-profit organisation incorporated in North Dakota, USA with staff based in the USA, Argentina, Armenia, Brazil, Germany, Spain, Slovenia and the United Kingdom. We work in the field of assessment of bodies engaged in inspection and certification of organic and sustainable agriculture and related fields. Our work in oversight of conformity assessment assists in the development of various private and regulatory schemes by enhancing fairness for producers and building trust in ‘eco-labels’ by consumers.

We work with an increasing number of scheme owners (COSMOS, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, European Commission, Global GAP, GOTS, IFOAM, NATRUE, Textile Exchange) and the accreditation and assessment services we provide cover organic agriculture, sustainable agriculture, organic textiles, organic and natural cosmetics, recycled products, animal welfare claims, fair trade, social compliance and food safety.

The day-to-day work of the IOAS (including assessment visits) is performed by 13 staff with support from a number of contracted assessors and technical experts. For more information about our work, please visit www.ioas.org.

As a result of expanding workloads in 2018 the IOAS is appointing two additional full-time Client Managers to join the current team to assist in implementing conformity assessment activities in organic agriculture and related areas.

THE POSITION

The Client manager (CM) is appointed by the Executive Director and reports to the Programme Manager. The CM assists the Programme Manager in all aspects of the processing of applications for accreditation/assessment and is responsible for the administration of selected clients which may be active in a number of schemes.

Duties:

The Client manager (CM) will have day to day responsibility for processing of applications for accreditation, including:

  • the conducting of document screening reports;
  • identification of non-compliances;
  • organisation of evaluation visits;
  • conducting on-site visits;
  • the assessment of the visit report;
  • monitoring of corrective actions taken by the certification bodies and the processing of the accreditation decision to the point of contract signing.

Additional duties in assisting in the functions of ongoing monitoring of compliance of accredited programmes will include:

  • the assessment of annual returns,
  • conducting annual surveillance visits,
  • the organising of re-evaluation visits.

The CM will be required to conduct some evaluation visits. Other travel obligations include periodic training sessions and occasional participation in trade shows. Travel commitment is estimated at around 70 days per year and any one period of travel is likely to be no more than 1-2 weeks.

The CM may also have the opportunity to assist in procedural and policy development or to undertake general developmental tasks.

REQUIREMENTS

The successful applicant is likely to have a degree level qualification in agriculture or food related topics or have experience in such industries in quality related roles. Specific experience in the organic and sustainability sector and in some aspect of conformity assessment (inspection, certification, accreditation) is necessary. Also desirable would be qualifications and/or experience in food safety, social compliance, aquaculture, textiles, cosmetics, good agricultural practice or ethical trade. IOAS is especially interested in candidates with qualification and/or experience in food safety and social compliance. A track record of working internationally in different cultural environments would be an asset. Due to its increased activity in North America, IOAS would especially welcome applicants from North America.

Applicants must be able to work on their own as well as part of a team and show good attention to detail. Fluency in English is essential and at least one other language highly desirable as is a willingness to travel extensively, sometimes off the beaten track. Unless the successful applicant wishes to work in our North Dakota office, they will be expected to work from their own office which will require good communication links and good internet speeds.

CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT

Successful applicants based in the USA will be hired as full employees with benefits. Persons from outside the USA will be self-employed under long term contract. Self-employed persons will be expected to provide their own office equipment although all consumables will be covered by expenses. The salary will be fixed in the home currency in line with experience taking into account the local salary rates and comparative cost of living with a figure equivalent to US$40,000 plus benefits (US based) or US$45,000 (non-US based) being used as a guide.

Anticipated starting date: September 2018.

How to Apply

If interested please submit a letter of application with a curriculum vitae to Susan Hepper at hepper@ioas.org at the latest by 20 July, 2018.

If you want more information or wish to discuss the position in more detail you may send an email to the IOAS Assistant Executive Director Iris Rendon at Rendon@ioas.org.


Job Title: AHRI Senior Manager, Regulatory Reporting Compliance
Company Name: AHRI
City: Arlington, VA
Type: Full time
Posted: 06/29/18

Description:

AHRI's Senior Manager, Regulatory Reporting Compliance interprets all technical and regulatory aspects of Codes of Federal Regulations (CFRs) as they pertain to the products manufactured by members of AHRI, relating technical details to the programming team, and ensuring compliance with CFRs from government bodies such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

This individual reports to the Director, Data Services and supervises two positions. This is an exempt position with a hiring range of $77 - $95,000 per year.

Essential Functions

  • Interacts with local, state, and federal regulatory agencies on regulations affecting the HVACR industry
  • Develops and maintains current knowledge of regulatory issues important to the association’s membership.
  • Works closely with members of the Government Relations Regulatory team to ensure that current regulations are reviewed and specifications for reporting are applied
  • Relates technical details to programming team for report development
  • Oversees the timely completion of all regulatory submissions on behalf of AHRI participants, including all technical and project planning aspects.

Position Qualifications

  • Bachelor of Science in Engineering (Masters or another advanced degree is preferable) or other advanced degree required.
  • A minimum of five years within the field of engineering or a minimum of three years prior work experience in regulatory policy, code development, or related field is required.
  • Working knowledge of Microsoft Office products, including Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access.

Other Requirements

An in depth understanding of the HVACR industry and engineering principles related to regulatory policy with preferred work experience in the HVACR design and manufacturing, mechanical engineering, standards development, or at a federal or state agency, or similar experience on technical and regulatory energy or environmental policy issues. An in depth understanding of the regulatory processes with preferred work experience at a federal or state agency, or similar experience on energy or environmental issues.

How to Apply

Applicants must apply through our website: www.ahricareers.org/careers

Applications through email will not be processed.


Job Title: Standards Engineer
Company Name: AHRI
City: Arlington, VA
Type: Full time
Posted: 06/29/18

Description:

The Standards Engineer works closely with AHRI members in product sections to review, develop, and maintain AHRI standards and technical guidelines. This individual is an integral part of the standards team, functioning as a liaison for standards activities between all AHRI product section engineering committees, and other committees focused on standards development and review. Additionally, this person supports AHRI's portfolio of international performance and safety standards.

Essential Functions:

  • Developing, processing, publishing, and distributing new and revised AHRI standards and technical guidelines
  • Serving on standards-writing committees of other technical societies and trade associations affecting AHRI’s members
  • Mentoring the team of staff engineers in their domestic standards-writing assignments, supporting the mission of the SPC
  • Provide individual and group periodic training to staff engineers and AHRI member company engineers on the subject of AHRI standards development
  • Supporting AHRI’s portfolio of international performance and safety standards
  • Representing and supporting AHRI in the international standards bodies

POSITION QUALIFICATIONS:

  • Bachelor’s degree (four year accredited college or technical school) in Engineering required
  • Two to five years of experience in a professional engineer position
  • Experience in review, development or implementation of standards while in a professional engineer position

Additional Skills:

  • Intermediate knowledge of MS Office Suite, with proven expertise in MS Excel and MS Word
  • Strong public speaking and meeting facilitation skills
  • Detail-oriented, with the ability to manage small tasks and projects effectively

How to Apply

Applicants must apply through our website: www.ahricareers.org/careers


Job Title: International Trade (Standards) Specialist
Company Name: Resonance
City: Washington, DC
Type: Temporary full-time
Posted: 05/24/18

Company Description:

Resonance is an award-winning frontier market solutions firm based in Burlington, Vermont, that helps a variety of donor, commercial and investor clients around the world to catalyze lasting impact. We envision a prosperous and just world of thriving markets, healthy ecosystems, and vibrant communities where business, governments and citizens work together creating a better world for all.

Resonance seeks to catalyze large-scale social, environmental, and economic change by fostering new and dynamic forms of collaboration. We do this by fostering public-private partnerships, facilitating sustainable investment, and providing deep analytical insights in frontier markets. We strive to merge strategic insight with practical on-the-ground knowledge into an integrated approach that emphasizes results.

We seek candidates who are ready to apply their analytical and problem-solving skills to some of our planet’s greatest challenges in an entrepreneurial, fun, and fast-paced environment. We are looking for passionate and committed people who can work in a highly collaborative environment to deliver results for our clients and stakeholders around the world.

Position Description

Resonance is seeking International Trade (Standards) Specialist candidates for the USAID Trade and Competitiveness Activity (TCA). The project is supporting the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Bureau for Economic Growth, Education and Environment (E3) Office of Trade and Regulatory Reform (TRR) to provide technical support to USAID Missions, USAID/Washington bureaus, and other United States Government (USG) operating units to design, implement, and evaluate a broad range of activities related to trade and investment, private sector development, and regulatory reform. Within this scope, TCA is supporting TRR as it works with interagency partners to ensure that USAID’s development programming is supporting USAID partner countries to formulate internationally recognized standards that allow for U.S. businesses to compete and for partner countries to meet standards necessary for increasing their exports and consumer safety.

The International Trade Specialist would have deep technical expertise in trade standards. Standards are key to free and fair-trade, opening market access, providing economies of scale, and encouraging innovation. The International Trade Specialist, as USAID’s point of contact on standards, would provide management and advisory services to U.S. Government Agencies and the private sector. Specifically, the individual fulfilling this position would have expertise on, and provide advisory support in technical barriers to trade, sanitary and phytosanitary standards for agriculture, and zoological and veterinary standards for animals and meat.

This will be a temporary full-time position based in Washington, DC, and reporting to the TCA Chief of Party (a Resonance employee).

Essential functions

The International Trade (Standards) Specialist will be responsible for leading trade standard initiatives for USAID’s Office of Trade and Regulatory Reform. Responsibilities include but are not limited to:

  • Provide standards expertise on technical barriers to trade, sanitary and phytosanitary standards for agriculture, and zoological and veterinary standards for animals and meat;
  • Manage and expand partnerships under TRR’s Global Development Alliance with the American National Standards Institute;
  • Collaborate with interagency partners, e.g. the U.S. Trade Representative’s Office, Customs and Border Protection, State, and Commerce to ensure that UAID’s development programming is applying best practice in trade standards;
  • Support developing countries in developing and applying internationally-based trade standards;
  • Support the USG in negotiating new Trade and Investment Agreements, and re-negotiating chapters of current trade agreements.
  • Other duties as assigned

Required education and experience

  • Master’s Degree in relevant field, PhD preferred.
  • At least 15 years of experience in trade standards in developing and transitioning countries.
  • Significant experience providing advisory services to U.S. Government Agencies and the private sector.
  • Demonstrated leadership skills and ability working collaboratively and independently.
  • Ability to work independently with initiative to manage high volume work flow.
  • Strong written and verbal communication skills.
  • Eligibility to work in US.
  • Possible top secret clearance required. Building clearance required.

PREFERRED EDUCATION, EXPERIENCE & COMPETENCIES

Work environment and physical demands

This job operates in a professional office environment. This role routinely uses standard office equipment such as computers, phones, photocopiers, filing cabinets and fax machines.

The physical demands described here are representative of those that must be met by an employee to successfully perform the essential functions of this job.

While performing the duties of this job, the employee is regularly required to talk or hear. The employee frequently is required to stand; walk; use hands to finger, handle or feel; and reach with hands and arms.

Travel expectations

Ability to travel internationally on short notice.

Work authorization/security clearance

US work authorization required. Possible top secret clearance required. Building clearance required.

AAP/EEO Statement

The Equal Employment Opportunity Policy of Resonance is to provide a fair and equal employment opportunity for all associates and job applicants regardless of race, color, religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, age, marital status or disability. Resonance hires and promotes individuals solely on the basis of their qualifications for the job to be filled. Resonance believes that employees should be provided with a working environment which enables each associate to be productive and to work to the best of his or her ability. We do not condone or tolerate an atmosphere of intimidation or harassment based on race, color, religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, age, marital status or disability.

We expect and require the cooperation of all employees in maintaining a discrimination and harassment-free atmosphere.

How to Apply

Qualified candidates should submit a cover letter, resume and three references to jobs@resonanceglobal.com. Please include “International Trade (Standards) Specialist” in the email subject line, and save documents (cover letter, resume, and references) in one PDF as ‘Last Name_First Name.pdf’. Applications will be reviewed on a rolling basis. Only candidates selected for interviews will be contacted. No phone calls please. Resonance is an Equal Opportunity Employer.


Job Title: Certification Manager
Company Name: The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS)
City: Catonsville, MD
Type: Full Time
Posted: 05/03/18

Job Summary:

The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS) the largest society in the world for professionals in the field of operations research (O.R.), management science, and analytics is searching for a Certification Manager.

CAP (Certified Analytics Professional) is the premier global ANSI-accredited professional certification for analytics professionals. Now in its 5th year of operation, CAPs and aCAPs are employed in many major companies. The Certification Program is poised for continued strong growth around the world.

The Certification Manager for the INFORMS Certification Program will develop and implement strategies for the efficient management and growth of the program. Working closely with the Analytics Certification Board (ACB), the Certification Manager will ensure the excellence and integrity of the Program.

Essential functions:

The Certification Manager has the overall responsibility of all functions of the Certification Office. Reviews and recommends program policies; Helps to develop and participates in short- and long-term planning; Creates and executes growth plans and program projects; Supports the work of the Analytics Certification Board and serves as the liaison between the certification program and other internal and external groups.

Works with the Department of Public Affairs and Marketing to develop and implement a cohesive marketing and communications strategy to promote CAP/aCAP awareness and growth Ensures program conforms to certification standards, especially those required by ANSI (ISO/IEC Standard 17024).

Specific tasks and responsibilities:

  • Actively participates in the continuing development and growth of the analytics certification program as an advisor to the ACB.
  • Keeps the ACB, their Director, and INFORMS staff/volunteer leadership fully informed about the conditions and operation of the certification program as well as on all important factors influencing them.
  • Develops policies and procedures and determines goals and objectives for the certification program. Directs and manages the certification program including setting priorities for projects and tasks.
  • Contributes to and coordinates the development and implementation of the certification program marketing and communications plans.
  • Ensures the consistent and timely review and updates of the certification exam forms and test items. Maintains the application and approval process and responds to requests for information.
  • Identifies and researches required consultants and testing agencies. Negotiates contracts as authorized by the Director or Executive Director. Manages all contractual agreements.
  • Provides staff support for meetings of the ACB, the ACB Executive Committee, and any ad hoc and standing committees of the ACB; prepares agendas for review by the Chair of the ACB, distributes agenda and other supporting documents, including meeting minutes and metrics, at least one week prior to meetings; acts as secretary at the meetings, prepares meeting minutes for review by the Director and ACB Chair.
  • Manages the development of all certification program publications and reports, including regular program performance metrics.
  • Reviews certification organization policies and procedures annually to determine the need for revision. Makes recommendations to the ACB on suggested changes/amendments.

Knowledge and required skills:

  • Knowledge of certification processes and standards of practice for certification programs.
  • Basic understanding of psychometric principles.
  • Understanding of business principles and familiarity with marketing and communications.
  • Knowledge and skill in administration and management, including the ability to analyze complex issues/problems, set priorities, assign responsibility, coordinate the work of others and manage finances.
  • Strong interpersonal and relationship-building skills; talented at building consensus, inspiring others to action and leading cross-functional teams.
  • Strong strategic planning and organizational skills required; demonstrated ability to plan, analyze, and coordinate activities.
  • Capable of developing new initiatives from concept through implementation.
  • Experience working with volunteers and in associations.
  • Strong analytical skills and experience interpreting data and developing it into a strategic vision and dashboards that demonstrate the program visually.
  • Strong organization skills, especially ability to organize data and documents.
  • Good oral and written communication and public speaking skills.
  • Good research skills.
  • Advanced proficiency in Microsoft Word, Excel, Outlook, and PowerPoint.
  • Ability to handle issues of a confidential nature.
  • Ability to travel both domestically and internationally as needed to participate in national conferences and meetings.

Physical requirements:

Must have the ability to perform moderately strenuous activities including but not limited to sustained activities (continual bending, stooping etc.) and lifting and moving packages up to 25lbs.

Education and work experience:

  • Minimum of a BA/BS degree require in an applicable area of specialty.
  • Experience in a nonprofit organization with budget and fiscal management responsibilities required.
  • Experience operating a certification program strongly preferred.
  • Analytics/operations research background preferred, but not required.

How to Apply

Name and contact information of person to whom resumes shall be sent (including E-mail and Phone) human.resources@informs.org, 443-757-3523


Internships

Need an Intern? ANSI to Expand Careers Page to Include Standardization Community Internships

As a service to our members and constituents in the U.S. standards and conformity assessment community, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) provides an online career network.

Available at www.ansi.org/careers, the page includes ANSI staff positions and contractual opportunities, as well as positions with ANSI member organizations.

With guidance from ANSI's Committee on Education, the careers page is now being revitalized to include internship opportunities as well.

ANSI members and other standardization community stakeholders are invited to send any internship opportunities to ANSI for inclusion in the new site. The posting is free and it’s easy to do – just follow the brief instructions and send the internship position to pr@ansi.org.

As ANSI receives positions for posting, the careers page will be updated to include a new section dedicated to internship opportunities.

Questions? Contact Susanah Doucet, director of communications and public relations, at pr@ansi.org.


Job Title: Noblis Summer Internship Program
Company Name: noblis.org
Job city: Falls Church, VA
Type: Paid Internship
40 hrs a week for the 8 week period,
June 1 to July 24,
$16-25 depending on school year
Job posted: 02/09/15

Responsibilities:

Guided and mentored by our expert staff (including former interns!), Noblis summer interns augment their classroom learning with hands on project work in:

  • Modeling and simulation
  • Cyber security
  • Systems engineering
  • Computer science
  • Biometric technologies
  • Life and chemical/biological sciences
  • Telecommunications (including wireless technologies)
  • Networks
  • Data/Knowledge management
  • Corporate business operations, e.g., finance and accounting, human resources/organizational development, information technology, event planning/coordination.

Your contributions will make an enduring impact in the areas of National Security & Intelligence; Enterprise Transformation; Environmental Sustainability; Transportation (Air and Ground); Health Care Innovation; Noblis Sponsored Research; and Corporate Business Operations.

Noblis is consistently recognized as a "Great Place to Work" and "One of the Best Mid-Sized Companies to Work For" by Washingtonian Magazine, Entrepreneur and The Great Place to Work Institute. Noblis maintains a drug-free, smoke-free workplace and is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

Qualifications:

What you bring to the table:

  • Proof of Permanent Residency or U.S. citizenship status;
  • A GPA of 3.3 or higher in your undergraduate, graduate or doctoral studies;
  • Demonstrated analytical skills, strong written and oral communication skills and team work skills.

Students majoring in Computer Science, Software Engineering or a related major will possess skills such as:

  • knowledge of software development processes and tooling, e.g., agile development, scrum;
  • experience with web 2.0 technologies (JavaScript, HTML 5, Google Web Toolkit, Ruby on Rails);
  • experience with version control systems and techniques, e.g., Subversion, Git, MS TFS;
  • experience with software architecture (UML, etc), system administration, network administration.

Noblis does not provide temporary housing or subsidize the cost of temporary housing for summer interns. We recommend George Mason University (http://housing.gmu.edu/summer/intern/).

Please apply through our external website: https://jobs-noblis.icims.com/jobs/3542/challenging%2c-paid-summer-internships/job


Job Title: Standardization Community Internships
Company Name: www.wise-intern.org
Job city: Washington D.C.
Type: Paid Internship
Job posted: 02/09/15

Description:

Washington Internships for Students of Engineering (WISE)

Each year, outstanding engineering students are selected to spend nine weeks in Washington, D.C., learning about the public policy process, including how government officials make decisions on complex technological issues and how engineers can contribute to legislative and regulatory public policy decisions.

9 weeks each summer

Must be at least a Junior/Senior level student attending college

Visit www.wise-intern.org to submit an application (Deadline is December 31 each year)

AN INTRODUCTION TO STANDARDS: WHY, WHERE AND HOW ARE THEY DEVELOPED?